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Phase I / II Environmental Site Assessments (ESAs)

Phase I / II Environmental Site Assessments (ESAs)

Phase I / II Environmental Site Assessments (ESAs)


Phase I ESA is an essential element of due diligence during a real estate property transaction of any kind. The process helps identify whether the soils and groundwater at a particular property have been impacted by current or historical activities on site or from contaminated sites in the surrounding area. Such knowledge is relevant in a real estate transaction as cleanup costs create liabilities that are not identified otherwise.


EPI conducts Phase I ESA studies to conform to the latest established guidelines and requirement that include the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) Standard Practice E1527-13 as well as the United States Environmental Protection Agency’s (USEPA) All Appropriate Inquiry (AAI) in accordance with 40 CFR Part 312 that provides prospective purchaser limitations on CERCLA liability. Adherence to such standards assures that the Phase I ESA reports are acceptable across the U.S. as well as internationally. EPI also conducts Phase I ESAs that conform to the U.S. Small Business Administration’s (SBA) requirements and provides an SBA Reliance Letter with each Phase I ESA report. A range of additional services can also be added to a standard Phase I ESA to customize a report. Contact us for your Phase I needs.



Sites that are identified as potentially high risk for contamination due to existing or previous operations, and those identified with present Recognized Environmental Conditions (RECs) are subjected to a more rigorous scrutiny with an invasive soil and groundwater testing protocol formally known as a Phase II Environmental Site Assessment. This process involves taking soil and groundwater samples from spatially distributed soil borings and monitoring wells that are drilled as part of the investigation. The samples tested in a State accredited environmental laboratory provide definitive evidence of contamination on site.


The scope of a Phase II ESA investigation is site specific and generally depends on the findings of the Phase I ESA report. As such, the scope of investigation, which includes the number of borings, the media to be sampled, the contaminants of concern (COCs) are determined by EPI’s scientists who have years of experience dealing with similar types of sites or specific suite of contaminants. This design phase can be the most critical element in a Phase II study and is one where EPI’s depth of experience can help clients pinpoint issues. Contact us for your Phase II needs.